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Application Note: XPS and TOF-SIMS for the Pharmaceutical Industry

Surface analysis techniques that analyze the top few atomic layers of materials play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry. From production quality control to understanding surface interactions in biological systems, these analytical techniques are helpful at all steps in the life cycle of a pharmaceutical for creating more effective products and processes. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)are two of the most commonly used surface analysis methods for studying pharmaceutical samples.  This application note discusses the complementary nature of XPS and TOF-SIMS for pharmaceutical materials.

Application Note: XPS Unique Instrument for Battery Characterization

The fully integrated multi-technique platform of the VersaProbe lll offers a complete suite of specialized solutions for in situ characterization of battery materials:
- operando electrochemical experiments;
- inert gas transfer vessel for air-sensitive samples;
- full electronic band structure using UPS, LEIPS and REELS measurements;
- unique microprobe technology for precise location of interfaces between battery components.

Application Note: Elemental Nano-Volume Characterization of ALD Defect Particles

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and atomic layer etching (ALE) are quickly becoming critical processes in semiconductor manufacturing. The stability and reliability of this process can be profoundly degraded by unwanted nucleation in “non-growth” regions. Knowledge of the defect composition is important information for designing a more selective ALD/ALE process. Here, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is used to chemically characterize such defect sites and therefore better understand the mechanism of selectivity loss during integrated ALD/ALE.

Application Note: Using AES, EDS, and FIB to Dectect, Identify and Image Buried Metallic Particles

Micro-or nano-sized defects in a material that exist just beneath the sample surface can be difficult to chemically characterize and image by either surface or bulk characterization techniques alone. Bulk spectral imaging techniques such as EDS suffer from poor spatial resolution, while surface analysis techniques such as AES struggle to locate the particles across a sample surface. This application note highlights the complementary nature of AES, EDS, and FIB together in a single UHV system for the characterization of a buried particle in aluminum sheet metal.

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© 2021 Physical Electronics, Inc. (PHI) All Rights Reserved.