XPS: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
ESCA: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
What is X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy?
XPS, also known as ESCA, is the most widely used surface analysis technique because of its relative simplicity in use and data interpretation. The sample is irradiated with mono-energetic x-rays causing photoelectrons to be emitted from the sample surface. An electron energy analyzer determines the binding energy of the photoelectrons. From the binding energy and intensity of a photoelectron peak, the elemental identity, chemical state, and quantity of an element are determined. The information XPS provides about surface layers or thin film structures is of value in many industrial applications including: polymer surface modification, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, semiconductor and dielectric materials, electronics packaging, magnetic media, and thin film coatings used in a number of industries.